جدول بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے انگریزی لہجات

سانچہ:Redirect سانچہ:Refimprove سانچہ:Copy to Wiktionary This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent انگریزی زبان pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

Chartلکھو

This chart gives a partial system of diaphonemes for English. The symbols for the diaphonemes are given in bold, followed by their most common phonetic values. For the vowels, a separate phonetic value is given for each major dialect, and words used to name corresponding lexical sets are also given. The diaphonemes and lexical sets given here are based on RP and General American; they are not sufficient to express all of the distinctions found in other dialects, such as Australian English.

Dia-
phoneme
[۱]
Phones Examples
IPA: English حرف صحیحs
p , سانچہ:IPA link pen, spin, tip
b سانچہ:IPA link but, web
t , سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۲] two, sting, bet
d سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۳] do, odd
t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ,   سانچہ:IPA link chair, nature, teach
d͡ʒ سانچہ:IPA link gin, joy, edge
k , سانچہ:IPA link cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ سانچہ:IPA link go, get, beg
f سانچہ:IPA link fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v سانچہ:IPA link voice, have, of
θ سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۴] thing, teeth
ð سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۵] this, breathe, father
s سانچہ:IPA link see, city, pass
z سانچہ:IPA link zoo, rose
ʃ سانچہ:IPA link she, sure, session, emotion, leash
ʒ سانچہ:IPA link pleasure, beige, equation, seizure
x سانچہ:IPA link loch (Scottish),[۶] ugh [۷]
h سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link,[۸] سانچہ:IPA link[۹] ham
m سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۱۰] man, ham
n سانچہ:IPA link no, tin
ŋ سانچہ:IPA link ringer, sing,[۱۱] finger, drink
l سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link,[۱۲] سانچہ:IPA link[۱۳] سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۱۴] left, bell
r سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link,[۱۵] سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۱۶] run, very
w سانچہ:IPA link we, queen
j سانچہ:IPA link yes, nyala
hw سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۱۷] what
 
IPA: Marginal consonants
ʔ سانچہ:IPA link uh-oh
 
IPA: Reduced vowels[۱۸]
ə Reduced /ʌ, æ, ɑ:, ɒ/
ɪ̈ (ɪ, ə) Reduced /ɪ, i:, ɛ, eɪ, aɪ/
ʊ̈ (ʊ, ə) Reduced /ʊ, u:/
ɵ (ə) Reduced /oʊ/
ɚ (ə) Reduced /ɜr, ɑr, ɔr/
IPA: English مصوتs and diphthongs
Dia-
phoneme
[۱]
AuE[۱۹]
 
CaE
 
GA[۲۰][۲۱][۲۲]
 
InE[۲۳]
 
IrE[۲۴]
 
NZE[۲۲][۲۵]
 
RP[۲۶][۲۷]
 
ScE[۲۸]
 
SAE[۲۹][۳۰]
 
SSE
سانچہ:Country data SGP
WaE[۳۱]
 
Keyword Examples
æ سانچہ:IPA link,
سانچہ:IPA link[۳۲]
سانچہ:IPA link, ~ɛə[۳۳] سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link[۳۴] سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc lad, bad, cat[۳۵]
ɑ: or æ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~
سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link
سانچہ:IPA link[۳۶] سانچہ:Sc pass, path, sample
ɑ: سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc father
سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc not, wasp
سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link[۳۷] سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link,
سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link
سانچہ:Sc off, loss, cloth, long, dog, chocolate[۳۸]
ɔ: سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc law, caught, all, halt, talk
ə سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc about
ɨ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc spotted
ɪ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۳۹] سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link sit
i سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link ɪj سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc city
i: ɪi̯ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link ɘi̯ ɪj سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc see
سانچہ:IPA link meat
æɪ̯ eɪ̯~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link æe̯ ɛɪ̯ سانچہ:IPA link eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯~
æɪ̯~äɪ̯~
ʌɪ̯
سانچہ:IPA link[۴۰] سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc date
ei day, pain, whey, rein
ɛ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link[۴۱] سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc bed[۴۲]
ɜr ɵ:(ɹ)~
ɘ:(ɹ)
سانچہ:IPA link~ɹ̩ ɜ:(ɾ)~äɾ ɔɹ~ʊɹ[۴۳] ɵ:(ɹ)~
ø̞̈:(ɹ)~
œ̈:(ɹ)
ə:(ɹ)~
ɜ:(ɹ)
ʌɾ[۴۳] ø̈:(ɹ)~
ø̞̈:(ɹ)~
ə:(ɹ)
ə(ɹ) ɜ:(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc burn
ɛɹ[۴۳] ɛɾ[۴۳] herd, earth
ɪɹ[۴۳] ɪɾ[۴۳] bird
ər ə(ɹ) سانچہ:IPA link~ɹ̩ ə(ɾ) سانچہ:IPA link~ɹ̩ ɘ(ɹ) ə(ɹ) əɾ ə(ɹ) ə(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc winner,massacre[۴۴]
Dia-
phoneme
[۱]
AuE
 
CaE
 
GA
 
InE
 
IrE
 
NZE
 
RP
 
ScE
 
SAE
 
SSE
سانچہ:Country data SIN
WaE
 
Keyword Examples
ʌ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link ~ سانچہ:IPA link ~ سانچہ:IPA link [۴۵] سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link, سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc run, won, flood
ʊ سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc put
u: hood
u: سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link ɵu̯ سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link~
سانچہ:IPA link
سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:Sc through, you
ɪu[۴۶] threw, yew
ju: jʉ: (j)u̟ ju: jʉ: ju̟:~jʉ: ju̟:~jʉ:~
jy:
ju cute, dew, ewe
ɑe̯~ɑɪ̯ aɪ̯, ɐɪ̯~ʌɪ̯][۴۷] äɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɐe̯ ɑɪ̯ əi̯~ae̯ äɪ̯~سانچہ:IPA link~
ɑɪ̯~سانچہ:IPA link
ai̯, ɑ[۴۸] ai̯ سانچہ:Sc my, wise, high

flight, mice

ɔɪ oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɒɪ̯ ɒɪ̯~oɪ̯ oe̯ oɪ̯ oi̯ ɔɪ̯~ɒɪ̯ ɔi̯ ɒi̯ سانچہ:Sc boy, hoist
əʉ̯~ɐʉ̯ oʊ̯~سانچہ:IPA link سانچہ:IPA link ɑʉ̯ əʊ̯ سانچہ:IPA link ɛʊ̯~œʊ̯~
œʉ̯~œɤ̯̈~
œ:~ʌʊ̯
سانچہ:IPA link[۴۰] o: سانچہ:Sc no, toe, soap
ou̯ tow, folk
ɔʊ̯ سانچہ:IPA link~oə̯~oʊ̯ ɔʊ̯ əʊ̯~ɒʊ̯~ɔʊ̯ soul, roll, cold
æɔ̯~æʊ̯ äʊ̯, ʌu̯[۴۷] äʊ̯~æʊ̯ äʊ̯ æu̯~ɛu̯ æɔ̯ au̯ ɘʉ̯ äʊ̯~سانچہ:IPA link~
æʊ̯
au̯ سانچہ:Sc now, trout
ɑr ä:(ɹ) ɑɹ ä:(ɾ) a:ɹ~

ä:ɹ

ɐ:(ɹ) ɑ:(ɹ) ɐ̟ɾ ä:(ɹ)~ɑ:(ɹ)~
ɒ:(ɹ)~ɔ:(ɹ)
ɑ(ɹ) a:(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc arm, car
ɪər ɪ:(ɹ)~
ɪ:.ä(ɹ)
ɪɹ ~
iə̯ɹ
ɪə̯(ɾ)~
i:(ɾ)
i:ɹ iə̯(ɹ)~
ɪə̯(ɹ)
ɪə̯(ɹ)~
ɪ:(ɹ)
ɪə̯(ɹ)~
ɪ:(ɹ)
jə(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc deer, here
ɛər e:(ɹ)~
e:.ä(ɹ)
ɛɹ ɛ(ə̯)ɹ~
ɛə̯(ɾ)~
e:(ɾ)
e:ɹ iə̯(ɹ)~
eə̯(ɹ)
ɛə̯(ɹ)~
ɛ:(ɹ)[۴۹]
ɛə̯(ɹ)~
ɛ:(ɹ)~
e:(ɹ)
ɛ(ɹ) ɛ:(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc mare, there, bear
ɔr o:(ɹ) ɔɹ ɔɹ~ ɒ:(ɾ) ɑɹ o:(ɹ) o:(ɹ) ɔɾ ɔ:(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
ɔ(ɹ) ɒ:(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc sort, warm
ɔər o:ɹ o:(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc tore, boar, port
ʊər ʉ:.ə(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
ʊɹ ʊɹ~ɔɹ~ ʊə̯(ɾ)~
u:(ɾ)
u:ɹ,
o:ɹ
ʊɐ̯(ɹ)~
ʉ:.ɐ(ɹ)
ɵ:(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)[۵۰]
ʊə̯(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
wə(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɾ) سانچہ:Sc tour, moor
jʊər jʉ:.ə(ɹ)~
jo:(ɹ)
jʊɹ, jɝ jʊə̯(ɾ)~
ju:(ɾ)
juɹ, jo:ɹ jʊɐ̯(ɹ),
jʉ:.ɐ(ɹ)
jɵ:(ɹ)~
jo:(ɹ)
juɾ jʊə̯(ɹ),
jo:(ɹ)
jɔ(ɹ) ɪʊə̯(ɾ) pure, Europe
Dia-
phoneme
[۱]
AuE
 
CaE
 
GA
 
InE
 
IrE
 
NZE
 
RP
 
ScE
 
SAE
 
SSE
سانچہ:Country data SIN
WaE
 
Keyword Examples
IPA: Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
سانچہ:IPA link Primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, rapping /ˈræpɪŋ/
سانچہ:IPA link Secondary stress/full vowel indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/
سانچہ:IPA link ہجا separation indicator; for example, ice cream /ˈaɪs.kri:m/ vs. I scream /ˌaɪ.ˈskri:m/
̩ ̍ Syllabic consonant indicator (placed under the syllabic consonant); for example, ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]

ہور ویکھولکھو

حواشیلکھو

  1. ۱.۰ ۱.۱ ۱.۲ ۱.۳ This is a compromise IPA transcription, which covers most dialects of English.
  2. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish English.
  3. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English.
  4. Pronounced [t̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [t̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /θ/.
  5. Pronounced [d̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [d̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /ð/.
  6. Marginal elsewhere, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lock–loch merger.
  7. This common English interjection is usually pronounced with [[[:سانچہ:IPA link]]] in unscripted spoken English, but it is most often read /ʌɡ/ or /ʌk/
  8. /h/ is often pronounced [[[:سانچہ:IPA link]]] between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants
  9. /h/ is pronounced [[[:سانچہ:IPA link]]] before the palatal approximant, /j/, and sometimes before high front vowels.
  10. /m/ is pronounced [[[:سانچہ:IPA link]]] before f and v (e.g. symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni], circumvent [ˌsɝkəɱˈvɛnt], some value [ˌsʌɱˈvæɫju:])
  11. In some dialects (e.g. Brummie) "ringer", "sing" etc are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/ rather than /ˈɹɪŋə/
  12. [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English; [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP and some other English accents, along with South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
  13. L-vocalization as [ɤ] is prevalent in Standard Singapore English.
  14. L-vocalization as [w], [o], and [ʊ] occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents not included in the chart. Notably Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, and African-American Vernacular English.
  15. The tap [ɾ] is found in some varieties of Scottish and Irish English.
  16. R-labialization as [ʋ] is found in some varieties of Southern England.
  17. Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Hiberno-English, and much of the American South dialects, distinguish ʍ from سانچہ:IPA link; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
  18. /ɔ:, aʊ, ɔɪ/ are never reduced. In some dialects, such as Australian, all reduced vowels become [ə].
  19. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  20. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  21. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  22. ۲۲.۰ ۲۲.۱ سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  23. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  24. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  25. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  26. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt. See Pronunciation respelling for English#International Phonetic Alphabet for the alternative system devised by Clive Upton for Oxford University Press dictionaries.
  27. "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation Phonology – RP Vowel Sounds". British Library. https://web.archive.org/web/20181225074019/http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/received-pronunciation/vowel-sounds-rp/%20. 
  28. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  29. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  30. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  31. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt
  32. See bad–lad split for this distinction.
  33. In most of the United States (with high dialectal variation), and to a lesser degree in Canada, special /æ/ tensing systems occur.
  34. Suzanna Bet Hashim and Brown, Adam (2000) 'The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.) The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics ISBN 981-04-2598-8, pp. 84–92.
  35. Often transcribed /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس.
  36. Deterding, David (2003) 'An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English', English World Wide, 24(1), 1–16.
  37. سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link occurs in American accents without the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers); the rest have سانچہ:IPA link.
  38. In American accents without the cot–caught merger, the سانچہ:Sc vowel (generally written o) appears as سانچہ:IPA link~سانچہ:IPA link instead of سانچہ:IPA link before the fricatives /f/, /θ/ and /s/ and the velar nasal /ŋ/; also usually before /ɡ/, especially in single-syllable words (dog, log, frog, etc.), and occasionally before /k/ (as in chocolate). See lot–cloth split. In American accents with the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers), only سانچہ:IPA link occurs.
  39. It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kit–bit split .
  40. ۴۰.۰ ۴۰.۱ Deterding, David (2000) 'Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99.
  41. Tay Wan, Joo; Mary (1982). "'The phonology of educated Singapore English'". English World-Wide 3 (2): 135–45. doi:10.1075/eww.3.2.02tay. 
  42. Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  43. ۴۳.۰ ۴۳.۱ ۴۳.۲ ۴۳.۳ ۴۳.۴ ۴۳.۵ See Fern–fir–fur merger for this distinction.
  44. Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [ə(ɹ)].
  45. The سانچہ:Sc vowel in BrE is highly variable in the triangle defined by ə, ʌ and ɑ, see 'STRUT for Dummies'
  46. In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /ju:/, /jɪu/ and /ɪu/ respectively; in most other varieties of English they are homophones.
  47. ۴۷.۰ ۴۷.۱ Canadian English has a phenomenon called Canadian raising in which raised diphthongs [ʌi̯] and [ʌu̯] are found before voiceless consonants, as in right [ɹʷʌi̯t] and out [ʌu̯t]; in other environments, [aɪ̯] and [aʊ̯] are used. In much of U.S. English, this happens with [ʌɪ̯], primarily when a voiceless consonant phoneme follows /aɪ̯/. For example, dike, life, and sight end with voiceless /k/, /f/, and /t/, so the diphthongs differ from those in wives and side, which have voiced /v/ and /d/. For some speakers, [ʌɪ̯] also occurs before voiced consonants when another syllable follows, but only when no morpheme break occurs; hence [ʌɪ̯] in tiger and/or spider, but [aɪ̯] in rider because -er is a separate morpheme. Most U.S. English distinguishes between writer [ˈɹʌɪ̯ɾəɹ] and rider [ˈɹaɪ̯ɾəɹ] purely based on this vowel difference.
  48. Lee, Ee May and Lim, Lisa (2000) ' Diphthongs in Singaporean English: their realisations across different formality levels, and some attitudes of listeners towards them. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 100–111.
  49. While the actual pronunciation is [ɛə(ɹ) ~ ɛ:(ɹ)], it can also be transcribed /eə(ɹ)/.
  50. سانچہ:Harvcoltxt notes that many people in England use [[[Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list|o:]]] for this vowel, but also that RP traditionally distinguishes between maw /mɔ:/ and moor /mʊə/, tore /tɔ:/ and tour /tʊə/, as well as paw /pɔ:/ and poor /pʊə/. If one wishes to make that distinction today it would be best to use ɵ instead of ʊə. This will lead to tore as to: and tour as tɵ:.

حوالےلکھو

سانچہ:Refbegin

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