# وکیپیڈیا:Manual of Style (dates and numbers)

This page guides the presentation of numbers, dates, times, measurements, currencies, coordinates, and similar material in articles. Its aim is to promote clarity and cohesion; this is especially important within an article. The goal is to make the whole encyclopedia easier and more intuitive to use.

Where this manual provides options, consistency should be maintained within an article unless there is a good reason to do otherwise. The Arbitration Committee has ruled that editors should not change an article from one guideline-defined style to another without a substantial reason unrelated to mere choice of style, and that revert-warring over optional styles is unacceptable.[1] If discussion cannot determine which style to use in an article, defer to the style used by the first major contributor.

## General notes

### Quotations, titles, etc.

ایہ وی ویکھو: WP:MOSQUOTE

Quotations, titles of books and articles, and similar "imported" text should be faithfully reproduced, even if they employ formats or units inconsistent with these guidelines or with other formats in the same article. If necessary, clarify via [bracketed interpolation], article text, or footnotes.

• It is acceptable to change other date formats in the same article to provide consistency, so long as those changes would otherwise be acceptable.

### Non-breaking spaces

Guidance on the use of non-breaking spaces ("hard spaces") – &nbsp;, {{nbsp}}, &thinsp;, {{thinsp}} – is given in some sections below; {{nowrap}} may also be useful in controlling linebreaks in some situations. Not all situations in which hard spaces or {{nowrap}} may be appropriate are described. سانچہ:Crossref

## Chronological items

### Statements likely to become outdated

Shortcuts:
WP:DATED
WP:EPHEMERAL

Except on pages updated regularly (e.g. current events), terms such as سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, and سانچہ:!xt should usually be avoided in favor of phrases such as سانچہ:Xt and سانچہ:Xt. For future and current events, use phrases such as سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt to signal the time-dependence of the information. Using {{as of|2020}} will produce the text سانچہ:Xt and adds the article to a category flagging it for periodic review. However, do not replace سانچہ:Xt with {{as of|2005}} because some information (the start of 2005) would be lost; advanced features of {{as of}} such as {{as of|2005|alt=since the start of 2005}} can be used in such circumstances.

Relative-time expressions are acceptable for very long periods, such as geological epochs: سانچہ:Xt

### Time of day

Shortcuts:
WP:MOSTIME
MOS:TIME

Context determines whether the 12- or 24-hour clock is used; in both, colons separate hours, minutes and seconds (e.g. سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt).

The numerical elements of times-of-day are figures (سانچہ:Xt) rather than words (سانچہ:!xt) though conventional terms such as سانچہ:Xt and سانچہ:Xt are acceptable (taking care, with the latter, to avoid possible date ambiguity in constructions such as سانچہ:Xt).

#### Time zones

Shortcut:
WP:TIMEZONE

Give dates and times appropriate to the time zone where an event took place. For example, the date of the attack on Pearl Harbor should be December 7, 1941 (Hawaii time/سانچہ:Zwspdate). Give priority to the place at which the event had its most significant effects; for example, if a hacker based in China attacked a Pentagon computer in the US, use the time zone for the Pentagon, where the attack had its effect. In some cases the best solution may be to add the date and time in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For example:

•   سانچہ:Xt

Alternatively, include just the UTC offset:

•  سانچہ:Xt

Rarely, the time zone in which a historical event took place has since changed; for example, China to 1949 was divided into five time zones, whereas all of modern China is UTC+8. Similarly, the term "UTC" is not appropriate for dates before this system was adopted in 1960;[2] Universal Time (UT) is the appropriate term for the mean time at the prime meridian (Greenwich) when it is unnecessary to specify the precise definition of the time scale. Be sure to show the UTC or offset appropriate to the clock time in use at the time of the event, not the modern time zone, if they differ.

### Dates, months and years

Shortcut:
MOS:DATEFORMAT

These requirements do not apply to dates in quotations or titles; سانچہ:Crossref. Special rules apply to citations; سانچہ:Crossref.

#### Formats

Acceptable date formats
General use Only where brevity is helpful (refs,[3] tables, infoboxes, etc.) Comments
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:Xt
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:Xt A comma follows the year unless followed by other punctuation:[4]
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:Xt Omit year only where there is no risk of ambiguity:
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:Xt
No equivalent for general use سانچہ:Xt Use format only with Gregorian dates from 1583 onward.[5]
##### Things to avoid
Shortcuts:

Unacceptable date formats (except in external titles and quotes)
سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Months are capitalized
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Do not use ordinals (سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, سانچہ:!xt, etc.)
سانچہ:!xt Do not add a dot to the day
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Do not "zero-pad" month or day, except in all-numeric (سانچہ:Var-سانچہ:Var-سانچہ:Var) format
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt Do not use separators other than hyphen
سانچہ:!xt Do not abbreviate year to two digits
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Do not use , or formats, as they are ambiguous for some dates[8]
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Do not use these formats. (سانچہ:!xt, in particular, can be mistaken for the range of years 2001–2007.)
سانچہ:!xt No comma between month and year
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt Comma required between day and year
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
Do not abbreviate freestanding year
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt Roman numerals are not normally used for dates
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt Years and days of the month are not normally written in words
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:!xt
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt Do not zero-pad years
سانچہ:Xt سانچہ:!xt Use "in the year" only where needed for clarity (سانچہ:Xt)
##### Consistency

Shortcut:
MOS:DATEUNIFY
• Dates in article body text should all use the same format: سانچہ:Xt, but not سانچہ:!xt.
• Publication dates in an article's citations should all use the same format, which may be:
• the format used in the article body text,
• an abbreviated format from the "Acceptable date formats" table, provided the day and month elements are in the same order as in dates in the article body, or
• the format expected in the citation style being used (however, all-numeric date formats other than must still be avoided).
For example, a single article might contain one, but only one, of:
سانچہ:Xt
سانچہ:Xt
(among other possibilities).
• Access and archive dates in an article's citations should all use the same format, which may be:
• the format used for publication dates in the article;
• the format expected in the citation style adopted in the article (e.g. سانچہ:Xt); or
For example, a single article's citations might contain either of the following:
سانچہ:Xt
سانچہ:Xt
When a citation style does not expect differing date formats, it is permissible to normalize publication dates to the article body text date format, and/or access/archive dates to either, with date consistency being preferred.
##### Strong national ties to a topic
Shortcut:
MOS:DATETIES
• Articles on topics with strong ties to a particular English-speaking country should generally use the date format most commonly used in that nation. For the United States this is, for example, سانچہ:Xt; for most other nations it is, for example, سانچہ:Xt.
• Articles related to Canada may use either format with (as always) consistency within each article.
• In some topic areas the customary format differs from the usual national one: for example, articles on the modern U.S. military use day-before-month, in accordance with U.S. military usage.
##### Retaining existing format
Shortcut:
MOS:DATERET
• If an article has evolved using predominantly one format, the whole article should conform to it, unless there are reasons for changing it based on strong national ties to the topic or consensus on the article's talk page.
• The date format chosen by the first major contributor in the early stages of an article should continue to be used, unless there is reason to change it based on strong national ties to the topic or consensus on the article's talk page.
• Where an article has shown no clear sign of which format is used, the first person to insert a date is equivalent to "the first major contributor".

Shortcuts:
WP:ERA
WP:BCE

#### Julian and Gregorian calendars

Shortcuts:
WP:OSNS
WP:JG
ایہ وی ویکھو: Old Style and New Style dates

A date can be given in any appropriate calendar, as long as it is (at the minimum) given in the Julian calendar or the Gregorian calendar or both, as described below. For example, an article on the early history of Islam may give dates in both Islamic and Julian calendars. Where a calendar other than the Julian or Gregorian is used, the article must make this clear.

• Current events are dated using the Gregorian calendar.
• Dates of events in countries using the Gregorian calendar at that time are given in the Gregorian calendar. This includes some of the Continent of Europe from 1582, the British Empire from 14 September 1752, and Russia from 14 February 1918 سانچہ:Crossref.
• Dates before 15 October 1582 (when the Gregorian calendar was first adopted in some places) are normally given in the Julian calendar. The Julian day and month should not be converted to the Gregorian calendar, but the start of the Julian year should be assumed to be 1 January سانچہ:Crossref.
• Dates for Roman history before 45 BC are given in the Roman calendar, which was neither Julian nor Gregorian. When (rarely) the Julian equivalent is certain, it may be included.
• For dates in early Egyptian and Mesopotamian history, Julian or Gregorian equivalents are often uncertain. Follow the consensus of reliable sources, or indicate their divergence.

The dating method used should follow that used by reliable secondary sources (or if reliable sources disagree, that used most commonly, with an explanatory footnote).

At some places and times, the new year began on a date other than 1 January. For example, in England and its colonies until 1752, the year began on Annunciation Day, 25 March; سانچہ:Crossref. In writing about historical events, however, years should be assumed to have begun on 1 January سانچہ:Crossref; if there is reason to use another start-of-year date, this should be noted.

If there is a need to mention Old or New Style dates in an article (as in the Glorious Revolution), a footnote should be provided on the first usage, stating whether the New Style refers to a start of year adjustment or to the Gregorian calendar (it can mean either).

#### Ranges

سانچہ:Anchors

Shortcuts:
MOS:DOB
WP:BORN
WP:OTHERDATE
WP:DATERANGE
• A pure year–year range is written (as is any range) using an en dash (&ndash; or {{ndash}}) not a hyphen or slash; this dash is usually unspaced (that is, with no space on either side); and the range's end year is usually abbreviated to two digits:
•   سانچہ:Xt;  سانچہ:Xt (not سانچہ:!xt;  سانچہ:!xt)
سانچہ:Hanging indent
But both years are given in full in the following cases:
Markup: 1011سانچہ:T922سانچہ:TBC
• spanning from BC/BCE to AD/CE: سانچہ:Xt (note spaced en dash)
سانچہ:Hanging indent
Notes:
• Periods straddling two different years, including sports seasons, are generally written with the range notation (سانچہ:Xt). The slash notation (سانچہ:Xt) may be used to signify a fiscal year or other special period, if that convention is used in reliable sources.
• A date range may appear in سانچہ:Xt format if it is a range of sports seasons.[9] This format is also indicated for date ranges appearing in reference citations if any dates (of publication, access, archival) are in format, because the range in question could thus be easily mistaken for a date: سانچہ:Xt but not سانچہ:!xt Another case is in tables (and lists the items of which begin with date ranges) in which some but not all date ranges span a century (sortability of a date column in a table also requires a consistent format for all entries: 2005–07 will unintentionally sort before 2005–2006).
• Other "pure" ranges use an unspaced en dash as well:
• If at least one of the items on either side of the en dash is in a mixed format (containing two or more of day, month, year); carries a modifier such as c.; or otherwise contains a space; then a spaced en dash ({{snd}}) is used:
سانچہ:Xt
سانچہ:Hanging indent
سانچہ:Xt
سانچہ:Hanging indent
Or use an en dash: (unspaced) سانچہ:Xt;  (spaced) سانچہ:Xt.
• The {{Age}} template can keep ages current in infoboxes and so on:
•  {{age|1989|7|23}} returns: سانچہ:Xt
•  {{age|1989|7|23}}-year-old returns: سانچہ:Xt
•  {{age|1989|7|23}} years old returns: سانچہ:Xt

#### Uncertain, incomplete, or approximate dates

Shortcut:
WP:APPROXDATE
•   سانچہ:Xt
•   سانچہ:Xt
•   سانچہ:Xt
• Where both endpoints of a range are approximate, c. should appear before each date:
•   سانچہ:Xt (not سانچہ:!xt)
•   سانچہ:Xt (not سانچہ:!xt)
• Where birth/death dates have been extrapolated from known dates of activity:
•   سانچہ:Xt
•   سانچہ:Xt
•   سانچہ:Xt
• When a person is known to have been active ("flourishing") during certain years, سانچہ:Xt, [[Floruit|fl.]], or {{fl.}} may be used:
•   سانچہ:Xt
The linked forms should not be used on disambiguation pages, and "active" followed by the range is a better alternative for artists, soldiers and other persons with an occupation.
• When a date is known to be either of two years (e.g. from a regnal or AH year conversion, or a known age at death):
•   سانچہ:Xt
• Other forms of uncertainty should be expressed in words, either in article text or in a footnote: سانچہ:Xt. Do not use a question mark (سانچہ:!xt) for such purposes, as this fails to communicate the nature of the uncertainty.

### Other

#### Seasons

Shortcuts:
WP:SEASON
MOS:SEASON

Shortcuts:
• For a social era or cultural phenomenon associated with a particular decade:

#### Centuries and millennia

Shortcuts:
WP:CENTURY
WP:MILLENNIUM
• Treat the 1st century AD as years 1–100, the 17th century as 1601–1700, and the second millennium as 1001–2000; similarly, the 1st century BC/BCE was 100–1 BC/BCE, the 17th century was 1700–1601 BC/BCE, and the second millennium 2000–1001 BC/BCE.
• The 18th century (1701–1800) and the 1700s (1700–1799) are not the same period.
• When using forms such as سانچہ:Xt ensure there is no ambiguity as to whether e.g. 1700–1709 or 1700–1799, is meant.
• Note that the sequence of years runs سانچہ:Xt – there is no "year 0".
• Centuries and millennia are identified using either figures (سانچہ:Xt, not سانچہ:!xt) or words (سانچہ:Xt). When used adjectivally they contain a hyphen (سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt). Do not capitalize (سانچہ:!xt;  سانچہ:!xt).

## Numbers

### Numbers as figures or words

Shortcuts:
WP:NUMERAL
MOS:NUMERAL
WP:SPELL09
MOS:SPELL09

Generally, in article text:

• "billion" and "trillion" are understood to represent their short-scale values of 109 (1,000,000,000) and 1012 (1,000,000,000,000), respectively. Keep this in mind when translating articles from non-English Wikipedias, or using material from non-English sources.
• سانچہ:Xt (unspaced) or سانچہ:Xt (unspaced) respectively may be used for "million" or "billion" after a number, when the word has been spelled out at the first occurrence (e.g., سانچہ:Xt).
• SI prefixes and symbols, such as سانچہ:Xtn (سانچہ:Xtn) and سانچہ:Xtn (سانچہ:Xtn), should be restricted to use in scientific and engineering expressions.
• Sometimes, the variety of English used in an article may necessitate the use of a numbering system other than the Western thousands-based system. For example, the South Asian numbering system is conventionally used in South Asian English. In those situations, link the first spelled-out instance of each quantity (e.g. [[crore]], which yields crore). (If no instances are spelled out, provide a note after the first instance directing the reader to the article about the numbering system.) Also, provide a conversion to Western numbers for the first instance of each quantity, and provide conversions for subsequent instances if they do not overwhelm the content of the article. For example, write سانچہ:Xt. Group digits in Western thousands-based style (e.g., سانچہ:Xt; not سانچہ:!xt); سانچہ:Crossref. (Note that the variety of English does not uniquely determine the method of numbering in an article. Other considerations, such as conventions used in mathematics, science and engineering, may also apply, and the choice and order of formats and conversions is a matter of editorial discretion and consensus.)

Shortcut:
WP:NUMNOTES

Notes and exceptions:

• In tables and infoboxes, quantities are expressed in figures (سانچہ:Xt); but numbers within a table's explanatory text and comments follow the general rule.
• Numbers in mathematical formulae are never spelled out (سانچہ:Xt, not سانچہ:!xt).
• Comparable quantities should be all spelled out or all in figures:
•  سانچہ:Xt, not سانچہ:!xt.
•  سانچہ:Xt, not سانچہ:!xt
•  سانچہ:Xt (even though "3" would normally be given as "three") or سانچہ:Xt (or "two hundred and six" for British English, even though "two hundred six" would normally be given as "206"), not سانچہ:!xt.
• Avoid beginning a sentence with figures:
•   Not سانچہ:!xt, but سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt.
•   Not سانچہ:!xt (nor سانچہ:!xt – because comparable numbers should be both written in words or both in figures) but سانچہ:Xt
• Exception: Where a proper name, technical term, etc., itself beginning with a numeral, opens the sentence (سانچہ:Xt) although this can usually be avoided by rewording (سانچہ:Xt).
Shortcuts:
MOS:ORDINAL
WP:ORDINAL

### Fractions

Shortcut:
MOS:FRAC
•   ${\displaystyle \textstyle {\frac {1}{2}}}$  – markup: <math>\textstyle\frac{1}{2}[/itex]
•   سانچہ:Xt – markup: {{sfrac|2}}
•   سانچہ:Xt – markup: 1/2

### Decimals

Shortcuts:
WP:DECIMAL
MOS:DECIMAL

#### Grouping of digits

Shortcuts:
WP:DIGITS
MOS:DIGITS
• Digits should be grouped and separated either by commas or narrow gaps (never a period/full point).
Grouping with commas
• Left of the decimal point, five or more digits are grouped into threes separated by commas (e.g.  سانچہ:Xt,  سانچہ:Xt,  سانچہ:Xt,  سانچہ:Xt).
• Numbers with exactly four digits left of the decimal point may optionally be grouped (either  سانچہ:Xt  or  سانچہ:Xt), provided that this is consistent within each article.
• When commas are used left of the decimal point, digits right of the decimal point are not grouped (i.e. should be given as an unbroken string).
• Markup: {{formatnum:}} produces this formatting.
Grouping with narrow gaps
• Digits are grouped both sides of the decimal point (e.g.  سانچہ:Xt,  سانچہ:Xt,  سانچہ:Xt).
• Digits are generally grouped into threes. Right of the decimal point, usual practice is to have a final group of four instead of a lone digit (e.g.  سانچہ:Xt  or  سانچہ:Xt). In mathematics-oriented articles long strings may be grouped into fives (e.g.  سانچہ:Xt).
• This style is especially recommended for articles related to science, technology, engineering or mathematics.
• Markup: Templates {{val}} or {{gaps}} may be used to produce this formatting. Note that use of any space character in numbers, including non-breaking space, is problematic for screen readers. سانچہ:Crossref Screen readers read out each group of digits as separate numbers (e.g.  30&thinsp;000  is read as "thirty zero zero zero".)
• Delimiting style should be consistent throughout a given article.
• Either use commas or narrow gaps, but not both in the same article.
• Either group the thousands in a four-digit number or do not, but not mixed use in the same article.
• However, grouping by threes and fives may coexist.

Shortcuts:
MOS:PERCENT
WP:PERCENT
WP:%

### Scientific and engineering notation

Markup: {{val}} and {{e}} may be used to format exponential notation.

### Uncertainty and rounding

Shortcuts:
MOS:UNCERTAINTY
MOS:LARGENUM
• Where explicit uncertainty information (such as a margin of error) is available and appropriate for inclusion, it may be written in various ways:
•  سانچہ:Xt
•  سانچہ:Xt (not used with scientific notation)
•  سانچہ:Xt
•  سانچہ:Xt (equivalent to سانچہ:Xt)[10]
•  سانچہ:Xt
Markup: {{+-}}, {{su}}, and {{val}} may be used to format uncertainties.
• Where explicit uncertainty is unavailable (or is unimportant for the article's purposes) round to an appropriate number of significant digits; the precision presented should usually be conservative. Precise values (often given in sources for formal or matter-of-record reasons) should be used only where stable and appropriate to the context, or significant in themselves for some special reason.
•   سانچہ:Xt
but سانچہ:Xt
•   سانچہ:Xt (not سانچہ:!xt – an official figure unlikely to be accurate at full precision)
but سانچہ:Xt (unusual case in which the full-precision official population figure is helpful to readers)
•   سانچہ:Xt (likely that accurate and precise figures were determined)
•   سانچہ:Xt (unlikely that any precise number can be accurate, even if an official figure is issued)
or سانچہ:Xt (in reporting conflicting information, give detail sufficient to make the contrast intelligible)
WP:£
WP:€
MOS:CURRENCY

### Currency symbols

• In general, the first mention of a particular currency should use its full, unambiguous signifier (e.g. سانچہ:Xt), with subsequent references using just the appropriate symbol (e.g. سانچہ:Xt), unless this would be unclear. Exceptions:
• In an article referring to multiple currencies represented by the same symbol (e.g. the dollars of the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and other countries – سانچہ:Crossref) use the full signifier (e.g. سانچہ:Xt, سانچہ:Xt) each time, except (possibly) where a particular context makes this both unnecessary and undesirable.
• In articles entirely on EU-, UK- and/or US-related topics, all occurrences may be shortened (سانچہ:Xt, سانچہ:Xt or سانچہ:Xt), unless this would be unclear.
• The pound sterling is represented by the سانچہ:Xt symbol, with one horizontal bar. The double-barred سانچہ:!xt symbol is ambiguous, as it has also been used for the Italian lira and other currencies. For non-British currencies that use pounds or a pound symbol (e.g. the Irish pound, IR£) use the symbol conventionally preferred for that currency.
• If there is no common English abbreviation or symbol, follow the ISO 4217 standard. سانچہ:Crossref

### Formatting

• Exceptions may occur in tables and infoboxes where space is limited e.g. سانچہ:Xt. It may be appropriate to wikilink such uses, or add an explanatory note.

### Conversions

• Conversions of less-familiar currencies may be provided in terms of more familiar currencies – such as the US dollar, euro or pound sterling – using an appropriate rate (which is often not the current exchange rate). Conversions should be in parentheses after the original currency, rounding to avoid false precision (two significant digits is usually sufficient, as most exchange rates fluctuate significantly), with at least the year given as a rough point of conversion rate reference; e.g. سانچہ:Xt, not سانچہ:!xt.
• For obsolete currencies, provide an equivalent (formatted as a conversion) if possible, in the modern replacement currency (e.g. decimal pounds for historical pre-decimal pounds-and-shillings), or a US-dollar equivalent where there is no modern equivalent.
• In some cases it may be appropriate to provide a conversion accounting for inflation or deflation over time. سانچہ:Crossref

## Common mathematical symbols

Shortcut:
WP:COMMONMATH
MOS:MINUS
• This is not a complete list of symbols that may be used.
• Spaces are placed to left and right when a symbol is used with two operands, but no space with one operand
• The {{nbsp}} and {{nowrap}} templates may be used to prevent awkward linebreaks in mathematical material.
• Many of these mathematical symbols are available in the "Insert" menu below the editing window and not have to be manually encoded as shown in this table, but just inserted with these tools.
Common mathematical symbols
Plus /
positive
سانچہ:Var + سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var + سانچہ:Var
+سانچہ:Var +سانچہ:Var
Minus /
negative
سانچہ:Varسانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &minus; سانچہ:Var Do not use hyphen (سانچہ:!xt) or dashes (سانچہ:!xt or سانچہ:!xt).
سانچہ:Var &minus;سانچہ:Var
Plus-minus /
minus-plus
41.5 ± 0.3 41.5 &plusmn; 0.3
−(±سانچہ:Var) = ∓سانچہ:Var &minus;(&plusmn;سانچہ:Var) = &#8723;سانچہ:Var
Multiplication,
cross
سانچہ:Var × سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &times; سانچہ:Var Do not use the letter سانچہ:!xt to indicate multiplication. However, an unspaced سانچہ:Xt may be used as a substitute for "by" in common terms such as [[4x4|سانچہ:Xt]].
Division, obelus سانچہ:Var ÷ سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &divide; سانچہ:Var
Equal / equals سانچہ:Var = سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var = سانچہ:Var
Not equal سانچہ:Varسانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &ne; سانچہ:Var
Approx. equal π ≈ 3.14 {{pi}} &asymp; 3.14
Less than سانچہ:Var < سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &lt; سانچہ:Var
L.T. or equal سانچہ:Varسانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &le; سانچہ:Var
Greater than سانچہ:Var > سانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &gt; سانچہ:Var
G.T. or equal سانچہ:Varسانچہ:Var سانچہ:Var &ge; سانچہ:Var

Note: The variables in this table represent editor input. To actually markup variables in wikitext, use the {{var}} template or <var>...</var> HTML element: سانچہ:Tnull + سانچہ:Tnull and <var>x</var> + <var>y</var> both produce: سانچہ:Var + سانچہ:Var.

## Geographical coordinates

سانچہ:Crossref
Quick guide:
Quick how to
To add 57°18′22″N 4°27′32″W﻿ / ﻿57.30611°N 4.45889°W to the top of an article, use {{Coord}}, thus:
{{Coord|57|18|22|N|4|27|32|W|display=title}}

These coordinates are in degrees, minutes, and seconds of arc.

'title' means that the coordinates will be displayed next to the title.

To add 44°06′43″N 87°54′47″W﻿ / ﻿44.112°N 87.913°W to the top of an article, use either
{{Coord|44.112|N|87.913|W|display=title}}

or

{{Coord|44.112|-87.913|display=title}}

These coordinates are in decimal degrees.

• Degrees, minutes and seconds must be separated by a pipe ("|").
• Map datum must be WGS84 (except for off-earth bodies).
• Avoid excessive precision (0.0001° is <11 m, 1″ is <31 m).
• Latitude (N/S) must appear before longitude (E/W).
Optional coordinate parameters follow the longitude and are separated by an underscore ("_"):
• dim: dim:N (viewing diameter in metres)
• region: region:R (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 or ISO 3166-2 code)
• type: type:T (landmark or city(30,000), for example)

Other optional parameters are separated by a pipe ("|"):

• display
|display=inline (the default) to display in the body of the article only,
|display=title to display at the top of the article only, or
|display=inline,title to display in both places.
• name
name=X to label the place on maps (default is PAGENAME)

Thus: {{Coord|44.117|-87.913|dim:30_region:US-WI_type:event

|display=inline,title|name=accident site}}

Use |display=title (or |display=inline,title) once per article, for the subject of the article, where appropriate.

Geographical coordinates on Earth should be entered using a template to standardise the format and to provide a link to maps of the coordinates. As long as the templates are adhered to, a robot performs the functions automatically.

First, obtain the coordinates. Avoid excessive precision.

Two types of template are available:

• {{coord}} offers users a choice of display format through user styles, emits a Geo microformat, and is recognised (in the title position) by the "nearby" feature of Wikipedia's mobile apps and by external service providers such as Google Maps and Google Earth, and Yahoo.
• Infoboxes such as , which automatically emit {{Coord}}.

The following formats are available.

• For degrees only (including decimal values): {{coord|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var}}
• For degrees/minutes: {{coord|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var}}
• For degrees/minutes/seconds: {{coord|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var|سانچہ:Var}}

where:

For example:

For the city of Oslo, located at 59° 55′ N, 10° 44′ E:

{{coord|59|55|N|10|44|E}} – which becomes 59°55′N 10°44′E﻿ / ﻿59.917°N 10.733°E

For a country, like Botswana, less precision is appropriate:

{{coord|22|S|24|E}} – which becomes 22°S 24°E﻿ / ﻿22°S 24°E

Higher levels of precision are obtained by using seconds:

{{coord|33|56|24|N|118|24|00|W}} – which becomes 33°56′24″N 118°24′00″W﻿ / ﻿33.94000°N 118.40000°W

Coordinates can be entered as decimal values

{{coord|33.94|S|118.40|W}} – which becomes 33°56′S 118°24′W﻿ / ﻿33.94°S 118.40°W

Increasing or decreasing the number of decimal places controls the precision. Trailing zeros should be used as needed to ensure that both values have the same level of precision.

London Heathrow Airport, Amsterdam, Jan Mayen and Mount Baker are examples of articles that contain geographical coordinates.

Generally, the larger the object being mapped, the 'less precise the coordinates should be. For example, if just giving the location of a city, precision greater than 100 meters is not needed unless specifying a particular point in the city, for example the central administrative building. Specific buildings or other objects of similar size would justify precisions down to 10 meters or even one meter in some cases (1′′ ~15 m to 30 m, 0.0001° ~5.6 m to 10 m).

The final field, following the E/W, is available for attributes such as type:, region:, or scale: سانچہ:Crossref. 

When adding coordinates, please remove the {{coord missing}} tag from the article, if present. 

سانچہ:Crossref 

Templates other than {{coord}} should use the following variable names for coordinates: سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var, سانچہ:Var. 

See alsoWikipedia:Naming conventions (numbers and dates) Wikipedia:Date formattings m:Help:Date formatting feature at Meta سانچہ:Section link at Metaسانچہ:Math templates Notes and references ↑ سانچہ:Section link, سانچہ:Section link, and سانچہ:Section link ↑ (2009-06-02) CCTF/09-32: Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). BIPM, 3. Retrieved on 2015-08-20. “This coordination began on January 1, 1960, and the resulting time scale began to be called informally 'Coordinated Universal Time.' ”  ↑ Only certain citation styles use abbreviated date formats. سانچہ:Crossref ↑ سانچہ:Crossref ↑ All-numeric سانچہ:Var-سانچہ:Var-سانچہ:Var dates might be assumed to follow the ISO 8601 standard, which mandates the Gregorian calendar. Also, technically all must be four-digit years, but Wikipedia is unlikely to ever need to format a far-future date beyond the year 9999. ↑ سانچہ:Section link ↑ The routine linking of dates is deprecated. This change was made August 24, 2008, on the basis of this archived discussion. It was ratified in two December 2008 RfCs Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Three proposals for change to MOSNUM and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Dates and numbers/Date Linking RFC ↑ These formats cannot, in general, be distinguished on sight, because there are usages in which 03-04-2007 represents March 4, and other usages in which it represents April 3. In contrast there is no common usage in which 2007-04-03 represents anything other than April 3. ↑ سانچہ:Section link ↑ The number in parentheses is the numerical value of the standard uncertainty referred to the corresponding last digits of the quoted result – سانچہ:Crossref. ↑ If there is disagreement about the primary units used in a UK-related article, discuss the matter on the article talk-page, at MOSNUM talk, or both. If consensus cannot be reached, refer to historically stable versions of the article and retain the units used in these as the primary units. Note the style guides of British publications such as The Times (see archived version, under "Metric"). ↑ 12.0 12.1 12.2 (2014) SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI), 8th, BIPM. Retrieved on 2015-08-20.  Tables 6, 7, 8, and 9 give additional guidance on non-SI units. ↑ These definitions are consistent with all units of measure mentioned in the SI Brochure سانچہ:Crossref and with all units of measure catalogued in EU directive 80/181/EEC [1]. ↑ "Resolution B2 on the re-definition of the astronomical unit of length". 2012. p. 1. http://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/IAU2012_English.pdf#page=3.  ↑ Wikipedia follows common practice regarding bytes and other data traditionally quantified using binary prefixes (e.g. سانچہ:Xtn and سانچہ:Xtn, meaning 220 and 210 respectively) and their unit symbols (e.g. سانچہ:Xtn and سانچہ:Xtn) for RAM and decimal prefixes for most other uses. Despite the IEC's 1998 international standard creating several new binary prefixes (e.g. mebi-, kibi-) to distinguish the meaning of the decimal SI prefixes (e.g. سانچہ:Xtn and سانچہ:Xtn, meaning 106 and 103 respectively) from the binary ones, and the subsequent incorporation of these IEC prefixes into the ISO/IEC 80000, consensus on Wikipedia in computing-related contexts currently favours the retention of the more familiar but ambiguous units سانچہ:Xtn, سانچہ:Xtn, سانچہ:Xtn, سانچہ:Xtn, سانچہ:Xtn, سانچہ:Xtn, etc. over use of unambiguous IEC binary prefixes. سانچہ:Crossref سانچہ:Style wide