وکیپیڈیا:IPA for English
- ↑ If the two characters سانچہ:Angle bracket and سانچہ:Angle bracket do not match and if the first looks like a سانچہ:Angle bracket, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
- ↑ The IPA value of the letter سانچہ:Angle bracket is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides hallelujah, there's Jägermeister and jarlsberg cheese.
- ↑ Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
- ↑ The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
- ↑ A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
- ↑ In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. Where the sound begins a word, such as Chanukah, it is sometimes replaced with /h/. In ugh, it is often replaced by /ɡ/ (a spelling pronunciation).
- ↑ In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
- ↑ /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
- ↑ Some regions, such as New York City and Philadelphia, separate this into two phonemes, /æ/ and /eǝ/, so that the vowel in man may be closer to that in mail than that in cat. See /æ/ tensing.
- ↑ In some regions, what would normally be [æŋ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], so that the a in rang is closer to the ai in rain than the a in rag.
- ↑ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
- ↑ Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷaɪɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ],سانچہ:Fact dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
- ↑ ۱۳.۰ ۱۳.۱ ۱۳.۲ ۱۳.۳ Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, lawyer, layer (stratum) and mayor with two syllables, and hire, flour, loir, lair and mare with one. Others pronounce them the same.
- ↑ ۱۴.۰ ۱۴.۱ Transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.[ref ۱]
- ↑ Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[ref ۲]
- ↑ Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
- ↑ /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
- ↑ ۱۸.۰ ۱۸.۱ ۱۸.۲ /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
- ↑ ۱۹.۰ ۱۹.۱ ۱۹.۲ /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
- ↑ Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
- ↑ In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
- ↑ This phoneme is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
- ↑ not a GenAm distinction
- ↑ Pronounced [iː] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with سانچہ:Angle bracket, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to سانچہ:Angle bracket.
- ↑ Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians[ref ۳] and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol سانچہ:Angle bracket,[ref ۲] and Merriam–Webster uses سانچہ:Angle bracket.
- ↑ Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol سانچہ:Angle bracket.[ref ۲]
- ↑ Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech.[ref ۴] Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
- ↑ It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress,[ref ۵] but it is conventional to notate them as here.
- ↑ Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
- ↑ Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).
Several dictionaries, such as the OED, do not indicate stress for words of one syllable. Thus hire /ˈhaɪər/ is transcribed سانچہ:Angbr, without a stress mark, contrasting with higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, which is transcribed سانچہ:Angbr, without a syllable mark.
- ↑ Wells, John (18 March 2009). "e and ɛ". Blogspot. http://phonetic-blog.blogspot.com.au/2009/03/e-and.html. Retrieved on 13 March 2015.
- ↑ ۲.۰ ۲.۱ ۲.۲ "Key to pronunciation". Oxford University Press. http://public.oed.com/how-to-use-the-oed/key-to-pronunciation/. Retrieved on 13 March 2015.
- ↑ vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322
- ↑ Bolinger 1989
- ↑ vd. Ladefoged 1993